Connectivity - i.e. the availability of infrastructure (e.g. transport, communication, energy) - is considered to be of crucial importance for regional (economic) development. A wide range of economic impacts are associated with the operation of airports. Airports are important factors for competition on fi nancial and location choices of the public and private sector, and especially for employment opportunities. The aim of this paper is the analysis and assessment of different economic impacts related to air transportation facilities in a regional economic context. Recent empirical works are reviewed and compared with a focus on their indications and methodologies applied. A major result of the current paper is that assumptions made for the prosperity of traffic volumes and economic impacts are of crucial importance since the a priori assessments have to account for a wide range of uncertainties. Despite of fundamental differences in study design, time horizon and geographic location a comparison of values is attempted to gain a comprehensive insight. In particular the impact assessment methodologies applied are critically reviewed, and problems of methodologically inherent overestimation are outlined.